Tawazun users have two options for accessing resources published by Tawazun, its partners and other research organizations.
  • Browse within a field: Country, Publisher and Year
  • Search within a field: Author, Country, Description, Keyword, Outlet, Publisher, Title and Year.
    By default, a keyword search queries keyword, title and description simultaneously.



Syrian Strategic Report (85)
Syria | On 25 Jan 2021
Strategy Watch
Language: Arabic
German Arms Exports and the Militari­sation of Arab States’ Foreign Policies
MENA | On 06 Jan 2021 by Yannik Hüllinghorst and Stephan Roll
German Institute for International and Security Affairs-SWP
Language: English
Arab states will again be among the main recipi­ents of German military equipment exports in 2020. This continues a trend that has been evident since the early 2000s. The foreign policies of the biggest customers have changed in recent years as they become less predictable and more willing to use military means to assert their interests. Military equipment exports could thus contribute to further escalation of the numerous inter­state conflicts in the Middle East and North Africa.
The Internal System of the YPG
Syria | On 01 Dec 2020 by Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi
Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi
Language: English
This brief details the internal system of the YPG (People's Protection Units), based on translation of historical documents.
Exploring Armed Groups in Libya: Perspectives on Security Sector Reform in a Hybrid EnvironmentExploring
Libya | On 23 Nov 2020 by Emadeddin Badi
Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance
Language: English
This paper explores the impact of the transfomations experienced by Libya's security sector since 2011. It also sheds light on the varying dimensions
of these transformations on security provision in the country and the implications for attempts to reform the Libya’s hybrid security sector.
Fleshing Out the Libya Ceasefire Agreement
Libya | On 04 Nov 2020
International Crisis Group
Language: English and Arabic
While Libya's ceasefire deal is a welcomed development, the text lacks specificity, leaving the parties room to backtrack on their commitments.
Strategic Pause: What Explains Russia’s Inertia in Eastern Syria?
Syria | On 27 Aug 2020 by Anton Mardasov
Middle East Institute
Language: English
On August 18, 2020, an improvised roadside bomb exploded in eastern Syria, killing a Russian general and wounding two servicemen.
Syrian National Army... The challenges of experience and potential implications
Syria | On 17 Aug 2020 by Firas Fahham
Jusoor for Studies
Since the end of 2013, the Syrian revolution has faced a major challenge, represented by being transformed from a state of anti-regime battalions and military factions with regional, ideological and racial structures into general military coordination in preparation for the establlishment of an actual military.
Inside the Foreign Fighter Pipeline to Syria: A Case Study of a Portuguese Islamic State Network
Syria | On 01 Aug 2020 by Nuno Tiago Pinto
Combating Terrorism Center
Language: English
A detailed case study of a Portuguese Islamic State network with strong connections to the United Kingdom sheds significant light on the foreign fighter recruitment pipeline between Europe and Syria. Several of the men involved in the network made two trips to Syria.
Tarhuna, Mass Graves, and Libya's Internationalized Civil War
Libya | On 13 Jul 2020 by Jalel Harchaoui
War on the Rocks
Language: English
Last month, forces aligned with Libya’s internationally recognized government made a gruesome discovery within the vicinity of Tarhuna, some 50 miles southeast of the capital, Tripoli.
Iraq's Silver Lining Amid the Pandemic
Iraq | On 07 Jul 2020 by Sterling Jensen, Waleed Al-Rawi
Carnegie Middle East Center
Language: English and Arabic
Iraq’s military responses to the coronavirus pandemic are diverse: creating more tension in Shia civil-military relations, building trust in Sunni civil-military relations, and pushing the government to emphasize sovereignty over externally fueled partisanship.